P r e f a c e
Ashtanga yoga literally means "eight-limbed yoga," as outlined by the sage Patanjali in the Yoga Sutras. According to Patanjali, the path of internal purification for revealing the Universal consists of the following eight spiritual practices:
Yama [moral codes]
Niyama [self-purification and study]
Pranayama [breath control]
Pratyahara [sense control]
Samadhi [absorption into the Universal]
W H A T'S
The first four limbs—yama, niyama, asana, pranayama—are considered external cleansing practices. According to Pattabhi Jois, defects in the external practices are correctable. However, defects in the internal cleansing practices—pratyahara, dharana, dhyana—are not correctable and can be dangerous to the mind unless the correct Ashtanga yoga method is followed.For this reason, Pattabhi Jois emphasizes that the "Ashtanga Yoga method is Patanjali Yoga" . (Flynn)
前面四支，yama, niyama, asana, pranayama被认为是身体外部的清洗法。根据Pattabhi Jois的观点，身体外部的缺陷通过前面四支的练习是可以被纠正的。然而，内在的缺陷想要通过后面四支的修行来纠正是很难的，甚至对大脑意识而言可能是危险的，除非遵循正确的八支瑜伽的修习方法。因此，Pattabhi Jois强调“八支瑜伽是遵循帕坦伽利观点的瑜伽”。 (Flynn)
The definition of yoga is "the controlling of the mind" [citta vrtti nirodhah] The first two steps toward controlling the mind are the perfection of yama and niyama .However, it is "not possible to practice the limbs and sub-limbs of yama and niyama when the body and sense organs are weak and haunted by obstacles" （Jois ）.A person must first take up daily asana practice to make the body strong and healthy .（Jois ）With the body and sense organs thus stabilized, the mind can be steady and controlled With mind control, one is able to pursue and grasp these first two limbs (Flynn).
瑜伽的定义是对“意识的控制”[ citta vrtti nirodhah]]，控制意识的前两步是yama和niyama修行的不断完善。然而，当身体和感官薄弱并存在障碍时，yama和niyama的修行将无法进行。（Jois ）一个人必须每天进行体式练习，使身体保持强壮健康。（Jois ）当身体和感官保持稳定，意识可以保持稳定，通过控制意识，一个人能够更好修习并领会前两支。( Flynn)
To perform asana correctly in Ashtanga yoga, one must incorporate the use of vinyasa and tristhana. "Vinyasa means breathing and movement system. For each movement, there is one breath. For example, in Surya Namskar there are nine vinyasas. The first vinyasa is inhaling while raising your arms over your head, and putting your hands together; the second is exhaling while bending forward, placing your hands next to your feet, etc. In this way all asanas are assigned a certain number of vinyasas" ("Ashtanga Yoga").
"The purpose of vinyasa is for internal cleansing" ("Ashtanga Yoga"). Synchronizing breathing and movement in the asanas heats the blood, cleaning and thinning it so that it may circulate more freely. Improved blood circulation relieves joint pain and removes toxins and disease from the internal organs. The sweat generated from the heat of vinyasa then carries the impurities out of the body. Through the use of vinyasa, the body becomes healthy, light and strong ("Ashtanga Yoga").
Tristhana refers to the union of "three places of attention or action: posture, breathing system and looking place. These three are very important for yoga practice, and cover three levels of purification: the body, nervous system and mind. They are always performed in conjunction with each other" ("Ashtanga Yoga").
W H A T'S
Posture: "The method for purifying and strengthening the body is called asana" (Jois 2002 22). In Ashtanga yoga, asana is grouped into six series. "The Primary Series [Yoga Chikitsa] detoxifies and aligns the body. The Intermediate Series [Nadi Shodhana] purifies the nervous system by opening and clearing the energy channels. The Advanced Series A, B, C, and D [Sthira Bhaga] integrate the strength and grace of the practice, requiring higher levels of flexibility and humility. Each level is to be fully developed before proceeding to the next, and the sequential order of asanas is to be meticulously followed. Each posture is a preparation for the next, developing the strength and balance required to move further" (Pace). Without an earnest effort and reverence towards the practice of yama and niyama, however, the practice of asana is of little benefit (Flynn).
体式：“净化和强化身体的方法叫做体式”(Jois 2002 22)。在八支瑜伽中，体式分为六个系列。“初级系列 [Yoga Chikitsa] ，是关于身体的排毒和顺位。中级系列 [Nadi Shodhana]是关于神经系统的净化和能量通道的打开和净化。高级系列a、b、c、d [ sthira bhaga]力量和优雅的结合，需要身体柔韧性更好和内心的臣服。在进入下一个系列练习之前，要完全驾驭上一个系列，并严格遵循体式的练习顺序。每个体式都是下一步体式的准备，培养进一步深入体式所需的力量和平衡。 (Pace)然而，没有对 yama and niyama的认真修行和敬畏，体式的练习无法发挥真正的益处 (Flynn)。
Breathing: The breathing technique performed with vinyasa is called ujjayi [victorious breath] which consists of puraka [inhalation] and rechaka [exhalation] ("Ashtanga Yoga"). "Both the inhale and exhale should be steady and even, the length of the inhale should be the same length as the exhale" ("Ashtanga Yoga"). Over time, the length and intensity of the inhalation and exhalation should increase, such that the increased stretching of the breath initiates the increased stretching of the body (Scott 21). Long, even breathing also increases the internal fire and strengthens and purifies the nervous system ("Ashtanga Yoga").
呼吸：配合体式一起练习的呼吸技法被称为ujjayi [胜利气息]，由吸气和呼气构成(“阿斯汤加瑜伽”)。“吸气和呼气都应该稳定和均匀的，吸气的长度应该与呼气的长度相同”(“阿斯汤瑜伽”)。随着时间的推移，吸气和呼气的长度和强度都应该增加，呼吸的增加会加深身体的伸展。(Scott 21)深长均匀的呼吸也增加了身体内的火能量，强化和净化神经系统(“阿斯汤阿斯瑜伽”)。
Bandhas are essential components of the ujjayi breathing technique. Bandha means "lock" or "seal"The purpose of bandha is to unlock pranic energy and direct it into the 72,000 nadi [energy channels] of the subtle body (Scott 21). Mula bandha is the anal lock, and uddiyana bandha is the lower abdominal lock ("Ashtanga Yoga"). Both bandhas "seal in energy, give lightness, strength and health to the body, and help to build a strong internal fire" ("Ashtanga Yoga"). Mula bandha operates at the root of the body to seal in prana internally for uddiyana bandha to direct the prana upwards through the nadis. Jalandhara bandha is the "throat lock" (Jois ）which "occurs spontaneously in a subtle form in many asanas due to the dristi ("gaze point"), or head position" 。This lock prevents pranic energy [from] escaping and stops any build-up of pressure in the head when holding the breath" (Scott 23). Without bandha control, "breathing will not be correct, and the asanas will give no benefit" ("Ashtanga Yoga").
收束法（bandhs)是ujjayi呼吸技术的重要组成部分。bandha意味着“锁”或“密封”，bandha是解锁能量，并打开人体72，000条气脉，即能源通道。(Scott 21)Mula bandha是根锁，uddiyanabandha是腹锁(“阿斯汤加瑜伽”)。这两把“锁”，锁住能量，让身体轻盈、充满力量、保持健康，并帮助身体建立强大的内火”(“阿斯汤瑜伽”)。根锁作用在身体的底部，在内部密封住能量，通过能力通道直接将能量向上输送到腹锁。Jalandhara bandha 指喉锁。 (Jois ）这是一种在体式练习当中自然发生的一种微妙的形式，跟凝视点或者头部的方位有关系。通过屏息，这把锁可以锁住能量，避免大脑压力的产生。 (Scott 23)没有收束法，呼吸练习将是不正确的，体式练习也不会带来任何好处”(“阿斯汤瑜伽”)。
Looking Place: Dristhi is the gazing point on which one focuses while performing the asana ("Ashtanga Yoga"). "There are nine dristhis: the nose, between the eyebrows, navel, thumb, hands, feet, up, right side and left side. Dristhi purifies and stabilizes the mind" ("Ashtanga Yoga"). In the practice of asana, when the mind focuses purely on inhalation, exhalation, and the drishti, the resulting deep state of concentration paves the way for the practices of dharana and dhyana, the six and seventh limbs of Ashtanga yoga .
凝视点：dristhi是注视点，在练习体式(“八支瑜伽”)时凝视的一个焦点。“阿斯汤加中有九个凝视点！鼻子，眉毛、肚脐、拇指、手、脚、上方、右和左侧。”。凝视点可以净化并稳定意识”(“阿斯汤阿斯瑜伽”)。在体式的练习中，当意识完全专注于吸气、呼气和凝视点时，将产生深度的集中状态，为进入Dharana [专注]、Dhyana [冥想]，即八支中的六支和七支打下基础。
Instruction in pranayama can begin after one has learned the asanas well and can practice them with ease ."Pranayama means taking in the subtle power of the vital wind through rechaka [exhalation], puraka [inhalation], and kumbhaka [breath retention]. Only these kriyas, practiced in conjunction with the three bandhas [muscle contractions, or locks] and in accordance with the rules, can be called pranayama" .(The three bandhas are "mula bandha, uddiyana bandha, and jalandhara bandha, and they should be performed while practicing asana and the like" "When mula bandha is perfect, mind control is automatic" ("Ashtanga Yoga"). "In this way did Patanjali start Yoga. By using mulabandha and by controlling the mind, he gradually gained knowledge of Yoga"
Practicing asana for many years with correct vinyasa and tristhana gives the student the clarity of mind, steadiness of body, and purification of the nervous system to begin the prescribed pranayama practice (Flynn). "Through the practice of pranayama, the mind becomes arrested in a single direction and follows the movement of the breath" (Jois 2002 23). Pranayama forms the foundation for the internal cleansing practices of Ashtanga yoga (Flynn).
坚持多年采用正确的串联和三位一体法来练习体式，可以让学生头脑清晰，身体稳定，神经系统得到净化，，而后开始练习呼吸控制法( Flynn)。“通过呼吸控制法的练习，思想集中在一处并关注呼吸运动”(Jois 2002 23)。呼吸控制法是八支瑜伽的内部清洁法的基础。(Flynn)
The four internal cleansing practices—pratyahara, dharana, dhyana, and samadhi—bring the mind under control (Stern and Summerbell ）When purification is complete and mind control occurs, the Six Poisons surrounding the spiritual heart [kama (desire), krodha (anger), moha (delusion), lobha (greed), matsarya (sloth), and mada (envy)]—"will, one by one, go completely" , revealing the Universal Self. (Stern and Summerbell 35)In this way, the correct, diligent practice of Ashtanga Yoga under the direction of a Guru "with a subdued mind unshackled from the external and internal sense organs" eventually leads one to the full realization of Patanjali's eight-limbed yoga.
四种内在清洁法的练习，即Pratyahara [感官控制]、Dharana [专注]、Dhyana [冥想]、Samadhi [与宇宙为一体]，使思想得到控制 (Stern and Summerbell ）。当身体得到净化，意识控制自然发生，精神和内心的六种毒素：欲望、愤怒、妄想、贪婪、懒惰、嫉妒将被一一清除，真我得到显现。(Stern and Summerbell 35)在大师的指导下，以正确的方式、勤奋的态度习练八支瑜伽，“不受外部和内部感官的约束”，最终实现对帕坦伽利的八支瑜伽的真正落实。